Causes of Positive Antinuclear Antibodies

1. Rheumatic diseases

Systemic lupus erythematosus
Polymyositis
Sjogren's syndrome
Scleroderma
Vasculitis
Rheumatoid arthritis

2. Normal, healthy individuals

Females > males, prevalence increases with age
Relatives of patients with rheumatic diseases
? Pregnant females

3. Drug-induced

4. Hepatic diseases

Chronic active hepatitis
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Alcoholic liver disease

5. Pulmonary diseases

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Asbestos-induced fibrosis
Primary pulmonary hypertension

6. Chronic infections

7. Malignancies

Lymphoma
Leukemia
Melanoma
Solid tumors (ovary, breast, lung, kidney)

8. Hematologic disorders

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

9. Miscellaneous

Endocrine disorders (type I diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease)
Neurologic diseases (multiple sclerosis)
End-stage renal failure
After organ transplantation

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