Causes of Positive Antinuclear Antibodies

1. Rheumatic diseases

Systemic lupus erythematosus
Sjogren's syndrome
Rheumatoid arthritis

2. Normal, healthy individuals

Females > males, prevalence increases with age
Relatives of patients with rheumatic diseases
? Pregnant females

3. Drug-induced

4. Hepatic diseases

Chronic active hepatitis
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Alcoholic liver disease

5. Pulmonary diseases

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Asbestos-induced fibrosis
Primary pulmonary hypertension

6. Chronic infections

7. Malignancies

Solid tumors (ovary, breast, lung, kidney)

8. Hematologic disorders

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia

9. Miscellaneous

Endocrine disorders (type I diabetes mellitus, Graves' disease)
Neurologic diseases (multiple sclerosis)
End-stage renal failure
After organ transplantation

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